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Home page > Human Body > Blood Clotting

A system Without Room for Smallest Error:
BLOOD CLOTTING
Human Body


blood_clottingEverybody knows that bleeding will eventually stop when there is a cut or when an old wound starts bleeding again. Where the bleeding is, a blood clot forms that hardens and heals the wound in due time. This may be a simple and normal phenomenon for you, but biochemists have shown through their research that this actually is the result of a very complicated system at work. The lack of any one component of this system or any damage to it would render the whole process useless.
blood clotting

The Blood Clotting Mechanism: When a wound starts bleeding on our bodies, an enzyme called thromboplastin that is released from damaged tissue cells combines with the calcium and prothrombin in the blood. As a result of the chemical reaction, the resulting mesh of threads form a protective layer, which solidifies eventually. The top layer of cells eventually die, becoming cornified, so forming the scab. Underneath the scab, or protective layer, new cells are being formed. When damaged cells are completely replaced, the scab drops off.

 

Blood has to coagulate in the right time and place and when normal conditions are restored, the clot should vanish. The system functions flawlessly down to the minutest detail.
If there is bleeding, the clot should form immediately in order to prevent the creature from dying. Furthermore, the clot should cover the entire wound and, more importantly, should only form over, and remain right on top of, the wound. Otherwise all the blood of the creature could coagulate and cause its death, which is why the clot should form at the right time at the right place.

The smallest elements of the bone marrow, the blood platelets or thrombocytes, are crucial. These cells are the main elements behind the coagulation of blood. A protein, called the Von Willebrand factor, ensures that, in their continuous patrol of the blood stream, these platelets do not miss the place of the injury. The platelets that become entangled in the location of the injury release a substance that collects countless others to the same place. These cells eventually shore up the open wound. The platelets die after performing their duty in locating the wound. Their sacrifice is only a part of the coagulation system in the blood.

Thrombin is another protein that facilitates coagulation of blood. This substance is produced only at the location of the wound. This production must be neither more nor less than necessary, and has also to start and stop exactly at the required times. There are more than twenty body chemicals called enzymes that have roles in the production of thrombin. These enzymes can trigger its reproduction or halt it. The process is under so much scrutiny that thrombin only forms when there is a real wound to the tissues. As soon as the enzymes of coagulation reach a satisfactory level in the body, fibrinogens that are composed of proteins are formed. In a very short while, a mesh of fibres form a web, which is formed at the location of the escaping blood. In the meantime, patrolling platelets continue to become entangled and accumulate at the same location. What is called a clot is the plug that is formed due to this accumulation.
When the wound totally heals, the clot dissolves.
The system that enables formation of the clot, determining its extent, strengthening or dissolving the formed clot undoubtedly, has an absolute irreducible complexity. (1)
The system works flawlessly down to the minutest detail.

blood_clottingWhat would happen if there were small problems within this perfectly functioning system? For example, if there was coagulation in the blood even without a wound, or if the clot could easily break off from the wound? There is a single answer to these questions: in such cases the bloodstream to the most vital and intricate organs, such as heart, brain and lungs, would be clogged with clots, which would inevitably bring death.

In reality, this shows us one more time that the human body is flawlessly designed. It is impossible to explain the clotting system of the blood through the hypothesis of coincidence or "gradual development" as asserted by the theory of evolution. Such a carefully engineered and calculated system as this is indisputable evidence of the perfection in creation. God, Who created us and placed us on this earth, has created our bodies with this system, which protects us in many cases of injury that we encounter throughout our lives.

blood clottingThe clotting of blood is very important not only for visible injuries but also for the ruptures of capillaries in our bodies that happen all the time. Although unnoticed, there are continuously small internal bleedings. When hitting an arm against a door or sitting down too heavily, hundreds of capillaries are ruptured. These bleedings are immediately stopped by means of the clotting system and the capillaries are reconstructed in their normal condition. If the impact is more serious, then the internal bleeding is stronger, giving way to the bruising commonly termed "turning purple". A human lacking the coagulation system would have to avoid even the smallest impacts. Haemophilic patients, having defective coagulation systems, live their lives like that. Patients with advanced haemophilia unfortunately do not survive too long. Even small internal bleedings, inflicted by a simple slip and fall, could be enough to end their lives. Due to this simple reality, each individual should consider the miracle of creation within his/her own body and be thankful to God, Who created that body flawlessly. This body is a blessing to us from God, a single cell of which we cannot even reproduce.

blood clotting

The Blood Coagulation Mechanism

The figure below illustrates the coagulation mechanism of the blood. The clot is generated as a result of the chemical reactions of a series of substances in a certain order. For dissolution of the clot, a similarly complicated process takes place.

 

 
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