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Home page > Human Body > Digestion Machine in Our Body

DIGESTION MACHINE in OUR BODY
Human Body


The saliva that is brought into play right at the beginning of the digestive process, moistens the food so that it can be easily chewed by the teeth and move down the oesophagus with facility. Saliva is also a specialised substance for turning, through its chemical properties, starch into sugar. Just think what would happen if saliva were not secreted in the mouth. We would not be able to swallow anything or even talk because of our dry mouths. We would not be able to eat anything solid, but have to feed on liquids or the like.
There is excellent balance in the system of the stomach. In the stomach, food is digested by the hydrochloric acid therein. This acid is so strong that it could even eat away the stomach walls as well as the food taken in. Yet, a solution is created for man: a substance called mucus, secreted during digestion, coats the stomach walls providing exceptional protection against the disintegrative effect of the acid.
Thus, the stomach is prevented from destroying itself. An error in the composition of the mucus could destroy its protective function. There is a perfect match between the acid used for digestion and the mucus secreted to protect the stomach from it.

The digestive system is one in which mouth, saliva, stomach, pancreas, liver and intestines operate in harmony and discharge their own functions. If one or more of these complementary organs do not function fully, the whole system becomes locked in stasis.

When the stomach is empty, the secretion that breaks up proteins, that is, foods derived from animals such as meat, is not produced in the stomach. In fact, it exists in the form of a harmless substance without any disintegrative properties. As soon as a protein-containing food enters the stomach, the HCI is secreted in the stomach and breaks this neutral substance down into proteins. Thus, when the stomach is empty, this acid does not injure the stomach that is itself made of proteins.
It is noteworthy that ‘evolution’ can never explain the existence of such a complex system, for it defends the idea that complex structures around us gradually evolved from primitive organisms by the accumulation of small structural improvements. However, it is obvious that the system in the stomach could not have evolved gradually and step-by-step. Absence of even a single factor would bring an end to the organism. One example is sufficient to better understand the inconsistency of the theory of evolution.
Think of an organism that wears down its own stomach by the acid it produces there - first its stomach would be destroyed painfully and then its other organs would be consumed by the same acid. The organism would die by eating itself alive.
The liquid in the stomach acquires the capacity to break down proteins after a series of chemical reactions. Think of an organism within the process of evolution, in the stomach of which such a chemical transformation cannot be realised. If the liquid in the stomach of an organism did not acquire the feature of decomposing proteins, that organism would not be able to digest food, and eventually would die with a lump of undigested food in its stomach.

Sstomach lining


Let us look at the subject from another point of view. The stomach cells pr oduce the acid in the stomach. Both these cells and other cells in any other part of the body (for instance the cells of the eye) are twin cells originating from the division of the same original single cell in the mother’s uterus. Moreover, both of them have the same genetic information. This means that the data bank of both cells includes genetic information about the proteins needed by the eye and the acid used in the stomach. Yet, submitting to an order coming from an unknown source, among millions of other pieces of information, the eye cell utilises the information belonging to the eye and the stomach cell utilises the information belonging to the stomach.

The human stomach can hold about 1.5 l/2.6 pt of liquid. The digestive juices are acidic enough to dissolve metal. To avoid damage, the cells of the stomach lining are replaced quickly - 500,000 cells are replaced every minute, and the whole stomach lining every three days.

 

Cross section of the small intestine showing the villi and their blood supply. There are hundreds of villi for every square millimetre of the small intestine (itself 5 m/16 ft in length).

What if the cells of the eye that produce the proteins necessary for the eye (for a reason unknown to us), began to produce the acid used in the stomach - about which they possess the necessary information? If something like that happened, a person would melt and digest his own eye.
Let us continue to examine the amazing balance inside our body:
The rest of the digestive process is equally well planned. The useful part of the food, which has been digested, is absorbed by the lining of the small intestine and diffuses through the blood. The lining of the small intestine is covered with lateral folds that look like a wrinkled cloth. On each fold are smaller folds called "villus".

A pump (villi) situated in the small intestines that absorbs the necessary materials from the digested food. There are 200 million such pumps in a square millimetre, and each one of them functions every second for the maintenance of our life. In the figure are seen special channels (veins, capillaries, and lymphoid channels) found in the pumps

These folds increase immensely the absorptive surface of the intestine. On the upper surface of the cells over the villus are microscopic projections named "microvillus". These projections absorb the food and function as pumps. The

interiors of these pumps are connected to the circulatory system through a conveyance system furnished with diverse conveyance routes. This is how the nutrition that has been absorbed reaches the whole body through the circulatory system. Each of the villi has nearly 3,000 microvillus. A 1 mm square area in the lining of the small intestine is covered by approximately 200 million microvillus. In an area of one square millimeter, 200 million pumps work, without breaking down or becoming exhausted, in order to sustain human life. So many pumps, which would normally cover a very large area, are squeezed into a very limited space. This system sustains our lives by ensuring that our body makes maximum use of the food we take in.
 

 
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