coming soon


Signs Of God, Design In Nature
A thorough examination of the feathers of a bird, the sonar system of a bat or the wing structure of a fly...

An Ideological Award For Evolution
On 23 December, 2005, the BBC carried a report on its web site titled “Evolution Takes Science Honors.” The report announced that the well-known scientific magazine Science , published in the USA , had given its 2005 science award to evolution...

Home page > Plants By Design > Special Materials in The Seed Coat

Plants By Design

These jelly-like objects belong to a variety of basil known as Ocimum basilicum . A few minutes after its seed coats come into contact with water, they start producing a jelly-like substance, and thus assume the above shown appearance. Seeds of this variety of basil are used in Thailand and other regions of the Orient, particularly added to fruit juice. (Grains de Vie, p. 24.)
The heavy seeds of Ipomoea murucoide are able to float on the air due to these fine hairs. Also thanks to these hairs, the seeds roll along the ground with the wind. (Grains de Vie, p. 25.)

Not only do the seeds have different structures; but the seed coats too are created with all their requirements.

The embryo inside the seed is extremely valuable – and vulnerable, needing to be carefully protected until the new plant has completely developed. This protection is provided by the seed coat, which shows variations in each species of plant. The degree of protection the seed is afforded corresponds to the resilience of the seed coat's material, which also affects the seed's ability to float or to be carried by the wind.

The seed's outer covering takes a great variety of forms, with many interesting features. Some are coated with a bitter substance to deter enemies. Some are rich in a chemical called tannin that prevents the seeds from rotting. The seed coats of several plant species are covered in a kind of jelly-like substance, which consists of complex sugars fused with proteins, and swells easily on contact with water allowing the seed to easily stick to damp materials. As you'll see subsequently, this characteristic plays an important part in the germination phase. (1)

The protective outer layer of a seed is usually extremely tough, protecting it from the external forces it will encounter. For example, in the final phase of some seeds' development, some impervious waxy substances are deposited on the outer

surface that make the seed resistant to water and gas penetration .(2)  Depending on the variety of plant, seed coats may be covered with materials as fine as the membrane covering a bean or as hard and woody as a cherry stone. Seed coats that must be water-resistant are tougher and thicker than the rest. For a seed we frequently encounter in our daily lives, let's use the bean as an example.

Depending on the variety, the bean may be enclosed in one or two coverings that protect the seed from harsh conditions such as cold air, drought or mechanical effects, in the same way as an overcoat. This is where all contact is made with the outside world.

At the point where the bean has broken off from where it was attached to the pod, there is an oval mark. On careful examination, a small opening called a micropyle is visible. Because of this opening's function, it can be compared to the navel of a baby. Through this small passage, the pollen tube used to fertilize the female reproductive cell in the ovule once entered. Now, when the time comes, water enters through this opening and allows the seed to germinate. (3)

Beans enclosed in a protective skin

As mentioned already, the seed coat's thickness is specially regulated according to the type of plant. Every seed coat is neither too thick nor too thin, but has just the right thickness to let the plant develop in its home environment. A seed with a thin coat can be destroyed more easily by various external influences. For this reason, all seeds have coats of the most suitable thickness for their respective habitats. Seeds with very thick coats can survive all kinds of difficult conditions, but the disadvantage of an exceptionally thick coat is that the embryo has problems breaking out of the seed.

Pomegranate seeds protected by their fruit's juicy red flesh. These seeds, with their extremely appealing appearance, are a product of God's perfect creation.

Moreover, close examination reveals that seeds distributed by animals have coats thin and easy enough to pierce for the animals to take an interest in their contents. But at the same time, the structure of the coats covering these seeds makes them unattractive to all seed-eaters. (4)

From the explanations given so far, it is evident that seeds, which appear to be so simple, are actually structured in great detail. Their characteristics, from the proportions of the materials they contain to their content and protective outer layers, all vary according to environmental conditions. But how did this variety and detail come into being?

 When we look in books propounding evolutionary theory to answer such questions as “How?” and “Why?”, we find that evolutionists prefer to use obscure expressions and deceptive methods. A book entitled Evolution has this to say on the subject of seeds and fruits:

The outer casing of a seed is strong enough to withstand the molar teeth and intestinal acids and enzymes of various animals, and an atmosphere lacking in oxygen. Moreover, this seed casing has been evolutionarily designed so as to protect the embryo until the conditions for germination are suitable from factors causing it to germinate at the wrong time and seed-eating animals. (5)

You'll note that having enumerated some of the remarkable features of seeds, the use of the expression "evolutionarily designed" tries to give the impression that they came into being through evolution. But the paragraph above by no means explains how seeds came into existence, because it merely mentions the perfection in their creation. The phrase “evolutionarily designed” actually has no meaning at all.

Moreover, this expression is untenable in itself, because the concepts of “evolution” and “design” are diametrically opposed. It's unimaginable that the process of evolution could produce a design, for evolution is claimed to depend on coincidences, and the very existence of an order reveals the existence of a conscious mind. Accordingly, if there is an order, it follows that concepts such as evolution, coincidence and chance can have no bearing. Signs of creation in seeds are evident proofs that they are not the product of evolution but are created by Almighty God.

Let an example clarify this further. Suppose that you visit an art gallery and come across a wall full of drawings, each depicting the seed of a different plant and its related details. Were you to ask the gallery director who drew all these pictures, what if you were told, “These were not drawn by any artist; they were evolutionarily designed with the help of coincidences”? You would find such an answer highly unreasonable, and continue to believe that they were the work of an artist.

Just as you would not believe in the “evolutionary design” of such drawings, neither would you accept that seeds – living structures containing all the information about a plant, which under the right circumstances can germinate to produce hundreds of thousands of different kinds of fruit and flowers – could come into existence as a result of unconscious coincidences. So the question should be who essentially created these perfect systems, how plants were structured accordingly.

With their claims of coincidence, evolutionists can never explain the very clear plan in the structure of seeds, a plan that evidently has not come about as the result of coincidences. Just as every drawing must have an artist, there is someone behind every plan. The perfectly planned systems in seeds is the work of God, with His eternal wisdom and supreme power.


The pictures above show a cherry pit and a cherry tree, which has grown, blossomed, and will in time bear fruit in accord with the information contained in this cherry pit. The picture to the right shows a kind of wild fig tree. These gigantic trees, standing meters tall, have also grown from little seeds like the cherry tree with its sweet tasting and perfectly colored fruit. (The small seed in a human hand below is of the fig tree.) All of these trees' characteristics are perfectly encoded in their seeds. Moreover, the same information has been encoded in the same seeds for millions of years, and for this reason, the identical plants always germinate from the same seeds. With the information He has installed in seeds, God shows us that He has power over all things.


(1) Françoise Brenckmann, Grains de Vie, Le Monde Merveilleux Des Graines, 1995-1997, p. 24.

(2) Wilkins, Plantwatching, p. 44.

(3) Brenckmann, Grains de Vie, p. 17.

(4) Mark Ridley, Evolution, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1993, p. 333.

(5) Ibid, p. 293.

(109 KB) Word doc (zip)
(216 KB) Adobe pdf (zip)
Your Comments About This Article

Our materials may be copied, printed and distributed, by referring to this site